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Adverse effects of testosterone supplementation may include increased cardiovascular events (including strokes and heart attacks ) and deaths based on three peer-reviewed studies involving men taking testosterone replacement. [51] In addition, an increase of 30% in deaths and heart attacks in older men has been reported. [52] Due to an increased incidence of adverse cardiovascular events compared to a placebo group , a Testosterone in Older Men with Mobility Limitations (TOM) trial (a National Institute of Aging randomized trial) was halted early by the Data Safety and Monitoring Committee . [53] On January 31, 2014, reports of strokes , heart attacks , and deaths in men taking FDA-approved testosterone-replacement led the FDA to announce that it would be investigating the issue. [54] Later, in September 2014, the FDA announced, as a result of the "potential for adverse cardiovascular outcomes", a review of the appropriateness and safety of Testosterone Replacement Therapy (TRT). [55] [56] [57] The FDA now requires warnings in the drug labeling of all approved testosterone products regarding deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism . [58]

The second theory is similar and is known as "evolutionary neuroandrogenic (ENA) theory of male aggression". [77] [78] Testosterone and other androgens have evolved to masculinize a brain in order to be competitive even to the point of risking harm to the person and others. By doing so, individuals with masculinized brains as a result of pre-natal and adult life testosterone and androgens enhance their resource acquiring abilities in order to survive, attract and copulate with mates as much as possible. [77] The masculinization of the brain is not just mediated by testosterone levels at the adult stage, but also testosterone exposure in the womb as a fetus. Higher pre-natal testosterone indicated by a low digit ratio as well as adult testosterone levels increased risk of fouls or aggression among male players in a soccer game. [79] Studies have also found higher pre-natal testosterone or lower digit ratio to be correlated with higher aggression in males. [80] [81] [82] [83] [84]

Testosterone wiki

testosterone wiki

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