Injectable steroids are injected into muscle tissue, not into the veins. They are slowly released from the muscles into the rest of the body, and may be detectable for months after last use. Injectable steroids can be oil-based or water-based. Injectable anabolic steroids which are oil-based have longer half-life than water-based steroids. Both steroid types have much longer half-lives than oral anabolic steroids. And this is proving to be a drawback for injectables as they have high probability of being detected in drug screening since their clearance times tend to be longer than orals. Athletes resolve this problem by using injectable testosterone early in the cycle then switch to orals when approaching the end of the cycle and drug testing is imminent.
Table of glycemic index and load values The average GI of 62 common foods derived from multiple studies by different laboratories High-carbohydrate foods GI White wheat bread* 75±2 Whole wheat/whole meal bread 74±2 Speciality grain bread 53±2 Unleavened wheat bread* 70±5 Wheat roti 62±3 Chapatti 52±4 Corn tortilla 46±4 White rice, boiled* 73±4 Brown rice, boiled 68±4 Barley 28±2 Sweet corn 52±5 Spaghetti, white 49±2 Spaghetti, whole meal 48±5 Rice noodles† 53±7 Udon noodles 55±7 Couscous† 65±4 Breakfast Cereals Cornflakes 81±6 Wheat flake biscuits 69±2 Porridge, rolled oats 55±2 Instant oat porridge 79±3 Rice porridge/congee 78±9 Millet porridge 67±5 Muesli 57±2 Fruit and fruit products Apple, raw† 36±2 Orange, raw† 43±3 Banana, raw† 51±3 Pineapple, raw 59±8 Mango, raw† 51±5 Watermelon, raw 76±4 Dates, raw 42±4 Peaches, canned† 43±5 Strawberry jam/jelly 49±3 Apple juice 41±2 Orange juice 50±2 Vegetables Potato, boiled 78±4 Potato, instant mashed 87±3 Potato, french fries 63±5 Carrots, boiled 39±4 Sweet potato, boiled 63±6 Pumpkin, boiled 64±7 Plantain/green banana 55±6 Taro, boiled 53±2 Vegetable soup 48±5 Dairy products and alternatives Milk, full fat 39±3 Milk, skim 37±4 Ice cream 51±3 Yogurt, fruit 41±2 Soy milk 34±4 Rice milk 86±7 Legumes Chickpeas 28±9 Kidney beans 24±4 Lentils 32±5 Soya beans 16±1 Snack products Chocolate 40±3 Popcorn 65±5 Potato crisps 56±3 Soft drink/soda 59±3 Rice crackers/crisps 87±2 Sugars Fructose 15±4 Sucrose 65±4 Glucose 103±3 Honey 61±3 Data are means. *Low-GI varities were also identified. †Average of all available data.
Chronic, persistent asthma should be treated according to the National Asthma Education and Prevention Program guidelines. 2 In athletes with confirmed EIB, a reasonable approach is to start with a short-acting beta 2 agonist before exercise ( Figure 1 ) . If regular dosing of a short-acting beta 2 agonist is needed, or if EIB is not controlled with short-acting beta 2 agonists, a second-line agent (., leukotriene receptor antagonist, mast cell stabilizer, inhaled corticosteroid with or without a long-acting beta 2 agonist) can be added. Inhaled corticosteroids and leukotriene receptor antagonists are the preferred agents in persons with underlying asthma. Leukotriene receptor antagonists are preferred in persons with allergic rhinitis. When prescribing medications to high-level athletes (., those who participate in the National Collegiate Athletic Association or the Olympics), physicians should be aware of which medicines require a waiver ( Table 4 32 , 33 ) . Patients should be reassessed periodically; if a satisfactory response is not achieved, the diagnosis of EIB should be reconsidered. Enlarge Print