Recently, a specific peptide inhibitor for ATGL was isolated from white blood cells, specifically mononuclear cells. This peptide was originally identifed as being involved in the regulation of the G 0 to G 1 transition of the cell cycle . This peptide was, therefore, called G0G1 switch protein 2 (G0S2). The protein is found in numerous tissues, with highest concentrations in adipose tissue and liver. In adipose tissue G0S2 expression is very low during fasting but increases after feeding. Conversely, fasting or PPARα-agonists increase hepatic G0S2 expression. The protein has been shown to localize to LDs, cytoplasm, ER, and mitochondria. These different subcellular localizations likely relate to multiple functions for G0S2 in regulating lipolysis, the cell cycle , and, possibly, apoptosis via its ability to interact with the mitochondrial antiapoptotic factor Bcl-2. With respect to ATGL regulation, the binding of the enzyme to LDs and subsequent is dependent on a physical interaction between the N-terminal region of G0S2 and the patatin domain of ATGL.
AB - The metabolism of propionate was examined in wild-type Escherichia coli and cells lacking citrate synthase by high-resolution 13C . Spectra of cell extracts from wild-type E. coli show that glutamate becomes highly enriched in 13C when 13C-enriched propionate is the sole carbon source. No glutamate labelling was detected when the tricarboxylic acid cycle was blocked either by deletion of citrate synthase or by inhibition of succinate dehydrogenase by malonate. The 13C fractional enrichment in glutamate C-2, C-3 and C-4 in wild-type cells was quantitatively and qualitatively different when [2-13C]propionate as opposed to [3-13C]propionate was supplied. Approximately equal labelling occurred in the C-2, C-3 and C-4 positions of glutamate when [3-13C]propionate was available, and multiplets due to carbon carbon spin-spin coupling were observed. However, in cells supplied with [2-13C]propionate, very little 13C appeared in the glutamate C-4 position, and the remaining glutamate resonances all appeared as singlets. The unequal and non-identical labelling of glutamate in cells supplied with [2-13C]- as opposed to [3-13C]propionate is consistent with the utilization of propionate by E. coli via two pathways, oxidation of propionate to pyruvate and carboxylation of propionate to succinate. These intermediates are further metabolized to glutamate by the action of the tricarboxylic acid cycle. The existence of an organized tricarboxylic acid cycle is discussed as a consequence of the ability to block utilization of propionate in tricarboxylic acid-cycle-defective E. coli.
Although the safety of inhaled corticosteroid therapy has been established, physicians should prescribe the lowest dosage possible. In addition, there may be a need to increase the corticosteroid dosage and add a long-acting beta 2 agonist in patients at high risk for exacerbations, such as those with a history of hospitalizations or emergency department visits because of asthma. 27 , 28 Combination therapy with an inhaled corticosteroid and a long-acting beta 2 agonist is more cost effective than treatment with an inhaled corticosteroid plus a leukotriene modifier. 29