As for aldehydes , the hydrogen atoms on the carbon adjacent ("α to") the carboxyl group in esters are sufficiently acidic to undergo deprotonation, which in turn leads to a variety of useful reactions. Deprotonation requires relatively strong bases, such as alkoxides . Deprotonation gives a nucleophilic enolate , which can further react, ., the Claisen condensation and its intramolecular equivalent, the Dieckmann condensation . This conversion is exploited in the malonic ester synthesis , wherein the diester of malonic acid reacts with an electrophile (., alkyl halide ), and is subsequently decarboxylated. Another variation is the Fráter–Seebach alkylation .
Numerous studies comparing psyllium to control animals have noted a quantitative increase in fecal weight and moisture content independent of changes in food intake, due mostly to increased water resorption in the colon.  This has been demonstrated in humans assessed by fecal analysis following oral consumption of psyllium husk   with one study noting two out of four subjects experiencing a doubling of fecal weight.  In a rat model of Colectomy (Colon removed, the moisture content of feces in this rat model at 65-70% better mimicks human moisture content at 70-75%; normal rats reach 12-55%  ), ingestion of either whole psyllium or the gel forming fragment can increase moisture content from an expected 65-70% to 86-90%. 
Other significant adverse effects of testosterone supplementation include acceleration of pre-existing prostate cancer growth in individuals who have undergone androgen deprivation; increased hematocrit , which can require venipuncture in order to treat; and, exacerbation of sleep apnea .  Adverse effects may also include minor side-effects such as acne and oily skin, as well as, significant hair loss and/or thinning of the hair, which may be prevented with 5-alpha reductase inhibitors ordinarily used for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia , such as finasteride .  Exogenous testosterone may also cause suppression of spermatogenesis , leading to, in some cases, infertility.  It is recommended that physicians screen for prostate cancer with a digital rectal exam and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level before starting therapy, and monitor PSA and hematocrit levels closely during therapy.