Propionate usage

As for aldehydes , the hydrogen atoms on the carbon adjacent ("α to") the carboxyl group in esters are sufficiently acidic to undergo deprotonation, which in turn leads to a variety of useful reactions. Deprotonation requires relatively strong bases, such as alkoxides . Deprotonation gives a nucleophilic enolate , which can further react, ., the Claisen condensation and its intramolecular equivalent, the Dieckmann condensation . This conversion is exploited in the malonic ester synthesis , wherein the diester of malonic acid reacts with an electrophile (., alkyl halide ), and is subsequently decarboxylated. Another variation is the Fráter–Seebach alkylation .

Numerous studies comparing psyllium to control animals have noted a quantitative increase in fecal weight and moisture content independent of changes in food intake, due mostly to increased water resorption in the colon. [21] This has been demonstrated in humans assessed by fecal analysis following oral consumption of psyllium husk [65] [66] with one study noting two out of four subjects experiencing a doubling of fecal weight. [22] In a rat model of Colectomy (Colon removed, the moisture content of feces in this rat model at 65-70% better mimicks human moisture content at 70-75%; normal rats reach 12-55% [8] ), ingestion of either whole psyllium or the gel forming fragment can increase moisture content from an expected 65-70% to 86-90%. [8]

Other significant adverse effects of testosterone supplementation include acceleration of pre-existing prostate cancer growth in individuals who have undergone androgen deprivation; increased hematocrit , which can require venipuncture in order to treat; and, exacerbation of sleep apnea . [24] Adverse effects may also include minor side-effects such as acne and oily skin, as well as, significant hair loss and/or thinning of the hair, which may be prevented with 5-alpha reductase inhibitors ordinarily used for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia , such as finasteride . [25] Exogenous testosterone may also cause suppression of spermatogenesis , leading to, in some cases, infertility. [26] It is recommended that physicians screen for prostate cancer with a digital rectal exam and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level before starting therapy, and monitor PSA and hematocrit levels closely during therapy. [27]

Propionate usage

propionate usage

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